Power System Dynamics ILAs (33 Total CEH)

 

ILA #1 (4 Operating, 1.5 Standards, 0 Simulation)

1.     Describe & illustrate fundamental AC principles & concepts (1/0/0)

·       Topics addressed include description of capacitance, inductance & phase angle, concept of voltage phase angle, concept of phasor diagrams, capacitive effects on transmission lines & description of MW, MVar & power triangle

 

2.     Describe & illustrate fundamental concepts of generator operation (1/0/0)

·       Topics addressed include theory of electromanetic induction, principles of construction of generators, illustration & description of types of generator prime movers including steam turbines, wind turbines, hydro turbines & combustion turbines, description & illustration of methods used to connect wind turbine generators to Interconnection & description of generation usage by type in NERC system

 

3.     Describe & illustrate fundamental principles of generator control systems (0.5/0/0)

·       Topics addressed include illustration of basic governor control system operation, basic excitation control system operation & illustration of synchronizing process

 

4.     Describe purpose & function of NERC (1/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include description of NERC's jurisdiction, description of NERC's operation & organization, explanation of need for NERC Standards & concept of markets as used within NERC

 

ILA #2 (4 Operating, 4 Standards, 0 Simulation)

1.     Describe & illustrate concept & usage of voltage phase angle & develop equations for MW & MVar flow (1.5/1.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include meaning & value of voltage phase angle measurement, description of design & operation of synchrophasors, description of PI model of transmission line, utilize PI model to develop equations for MW & MVar flow & PI model use in MOD-032-1 & MOD-033-1 Standards

 

2.     Describe construction & operation of phase shifting transformer (1/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include explanation of cause of 30 degree shift in wye-delta transformer, description & illustration of types of PST, illustration of how PSTs used to control MW flow, illustration of how PSTs used to reduce angle across open CB & description of how PSTs used to manage congestion as related to IRO-006-5 & TOP-001-3 Standards

 

3.     Describe & illustrate concepts of power flow using graphical tools & describe purpose & usage of power transfer limits & distribution factors (1/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include description & illustration of usage of power-angle curve, description & illustration of usage of power-circle diagram, description of purpose & usage of power transfer limits, description of ATC & AFC concepts as described in MOD-001-1a & description of purpose & illustration of usage of distribution factors

 

ILA #3 (10 Operating, 8 Standards, 0 Simulation)

1.     Describe fundamental theory of frequency control, review historical load data for NERC systems, examine actual frequency deviations & describe importance of load-frequency relationship & inertia (1.5/1.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include explanation of load to resource balance, examination of historic load levels in NERC Interconnections, explanation of range of allowable frequency deviations, description & illustration of load frequency relationship, explanation of role of inertia in frequency control process & description of content of BAL-003-1.1 as applies to load damping

 

2.     Describe & illustrate usage & operation of governor control systems (3/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include description of basic operation of governor control system, description & illustration of concepts of droop, speed regulation & deadband, governor response expectations from different types of generation, analysis of frequency events to determine impact of droop & deadband settings, difference between speed droop & speed regulation, examination of trends in NERC frequency response measure (FRM) & description of content of BAL-003-1.1 as applies to governors

 

3.     Describe & illustrate usage & operation of AGC systems (2/2/0)

·       Topics addressed include illustration of how interconnection divided into BAs, description of duties of BA, explanation of concepts of scheduled, actual & inadvertent interchange, explanation of frequency bias value, minimum bias values as defined in BAL-003-1.1, description & illustration of usage of constant frequency, constant interchange & tie-line bias methods of AGC & description of NERC AGC requirements as contained in BAL-005-0.2b

 

4.     Describe need for operating reserves & describe & illustrate current & future NERC control performance standards (2/2/0)

·       Topics addressed include description of types & sources of operating reserves, description & illustration of CPS1 & CPS2 performance standards, description & illustration of DCS, description & illustration of BAAL concept, describe & illustrate primary, secondary & tertiary frequency control & description of content of BAL-001-2 & BAL-002-2

 

5.     Describe purpose & operation of UFLS & illustrate impact of generator trip using time-based 4 stage approach (1/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include description of purpose, design & operation of UFLS program along with description of content of PRC-006-3 & PRC-024-2, examination of frequency data & frequency response trends from actual NERC disturbances, calculation & illustration of voltage phase angle changes during frequency events & analysis of generation trip in terms of 4-stage, time-based process including (1) electromechanical stage, (2) inertial stage, (3) governor stage & (4) AGC stage

 

ILA #4 (6 Operating, 5 Standards, 0 Simulation)

1.     Describe & illustrate concept of reactive power (1.5/1.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include explanation of reactive power from energy storage perspective, illustration of how reactive power flows, illustration of usage of shunt capacitors to compensate inductive load, derivation & usage of formula for transmission system reactive power usage & description of content of VAR-001-4.2 & VAR-002-4.1 as applies to voltage control

 

2.     Describe & illustrate causes & effects of power system high & low voltage (2/2/0)

·       Topics addressed include explanation of SIL, explanation of why shunt capacitor’s MVar output varies with voltage, illustration of how point-on-wave closing minimizes capacitor in-rush current, illustration of how unscheduled power flow leads to low voltage, illustration of how transmission line trips lead to low voltage, importance of reactive power reserves, difference between manual & dynamic reactive reserve, cause & methods of preventing Ferranti voltage rise, cause & methods of preventing generator self-excitation, concept of harmonic overvoltages, explanation of load/voltage relationship, explanation of transformer saturation, usage of lightning arresters to minimize impact of lighting strikes, description of GMD concept & its impact on voltage control, description of content of EOP-010-1 & TPL-007-1 as related to GMDs & description of content of VAR-001-4.2 & VAR-002-4.1 as relates to dynamic reactive reserve

 

3.     Describe & illustrate how voltage control equipment used to control power system voltage (2/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include usage of shunt & series capacitors for voltage control, usage of shunt (dry-type & oil-filled) & series reactors for voltage control, usage of transformer tap changers to move MVar around system, usage of generators to both absorb & provide MVar, description of illustration of various types of excitation systems, description & illustration of usage of reactive capability curves, illustration of generator V-curves, usage of thyrister controlled equipment such as SVCs, STATCOMs, variable frequency transformer (VFT) & HVDC converters & description of content of VAR-002-4.1 as applies to usage of generators for voltage control

 

ILA #5 (4 Operating, 3 Standards, 0 Simulation)

1.     Define key terms used in study of voltage stability & describe 3 types of voltage collapse (1/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include presenting & illustrating definitions of voltage stability, voltage instability & voltage collapse, describe difference between voltage & angle stability, describing & illustrating 3 types of voltage collapse (long-term, classical & transient), description of content of TPL-001-4 Standard as relates to voltage stability based operating security limits

 

2.     Explain concepts & illustrate usage of P-V & V-Q curves (1/0.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include explaining & demonstrating construction of P-V & V-Q curves, interpreting shape & data presented in fictional & actual P-V & V-Q curves, description of content of TPL-001-4 Standard as relates to usage of P-V & V-Q curves to determine operating security limits

 

3.     Use fictional & actual system events to illustrate voltage instability & collapse process (1.5/1/0)

·       Step through fictional & actual voltage collapse events using P-V & V-Q curves, describe impact of tap changers & generator MVar response & loss-of-load-diversity on voltage collapse scenarios, describe value of maintaining adequate dynamic reactive reserve, describe how UVLS schemes can help prevent voltage collapse & description of content of PRC-010-2 Standard as relates to UVLS programs

 

ILA #6 (5 Operating, 2.5 Standards, 0 Simulation)

1.     Define key terms used in study of angle stability & describe 3 types of angle stability (0.5/0.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include presenting & illustrating definitions of angle stability & angle instability, description of how short term frequency differences can lead to angle instability, use phasor diagram to illustrate angle instability, describe 3 types of angle stability/instability (steady-state, transient & oscillatory) & description of how angle stability limits determined using computer models described in MOD-032-1 & MOD-033-1

 

2.     Describe & illustrate processes of angle stability & angle instability (2.5/1/0)

·       Topics addressed include description of how power-angle curve used to analyze angle stability of power system, description of usage of swing equation, description of steady-state stability & steady-state instability using power angle curves, description of transient stability & transient instability using power angle curves, description of oscillatory stability & oscillatory instability using power angle curves & description of content of TPL-001-4 Standard as relates to stability based system operating limits

 

3.     Describe & illustrate usage of equipment to prevent angle instability (0.5/0/0)

·       Topics addressed include usage of braking resistors, usage of fast protection, usage of fast valving schemes & usage of OOS blocking & OOS tripping protective relays & description of PRC-026-1 as it relates to OOS power swings

 

4.     Describe different modes of power system oscillations & describe theory & usage of PSS (0.5/0.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include defining & illustrating inter-area oscillations, intra-area oscillations, local mode oscillations & intra-plant oscillations, describing & illustrating how PSS used to increase system damping & description of WECC’s PSS requirements as stated in VAR-501-WECC-3.1 standard

 

5.     Describe purpose & usage of North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI) (0.5/0.5/0)

·       Topics addressed include concept of phasor measurement unit (PMU), concept & usage of synchrophasors, description & illustration of actual synchrophasor driven remedial action scheme to prevent angle instability, description of how synchrophasors used for disturbance monitoring as required by PRC-002-2