Power System Dynamics ILAs

 

ILA #1

1.     Describe & illustrate fundamental AC principles & concepts

             Topics addressed include description of capacitance, inductance & phase angle, concept of voltage phase angle, capacitive effects on transmission lines & description of MW, MVar & power triangle

 

2.     Describe & illustrate fundamental concepts of generator operation

             Topics addressed include theory of electromanetic induction, principles of construction of generators, illustration & description of types of generator prime movers including steam turbines, wind turbines, hydro turbines & combustion turbines, description & illustration of methods used to connect wind turbing generators to Interconnection & description of generation usage by type in NERC system

 

3.     Describe & illustrate fundamental principles of generator control systems

             Topics addressed include illustration of basic governor control system operation, basic excitation control system operation & illustration of synchronizing process

 

4.     Describe purpose & function of NERC

             Topics addressed include description of NERC's boundaries, description of NERC's operation & organization, explanation of need for NERC Standards & concept of markets as used within NERC


 

ILA #2

1.     Describe & illustrate concept & usage of voltage phase angle & develop equations for MW & MVar flow

             Topics addressed include meaning & value of voltage phase angle measurement, description of design & operation of synchrophasors, description of PI model of transmission line, utilize PI model to develop equations for MW & MVar flow & PI model use in MOD-032-1 & MOD-033-1 Standards

 

2.     Describe construction & operation of phase shifting transformer

             Topics addressed include explanation of cause of 30 degree shift in wye-delta transformer, description & illustration of types of PST, illustration of how PSTs used to control MW flow, illustration of how PSTs used to reduce angle across open CB & description of how PSTs used to manage congestion as related to IRO-006-5 & TOP-001-3 Standards

 

3.     Describe & illustrate concepts of power flow using graphical tools & describe purpose & usage of power transfer limits & distribution factors

             Topics addressed include description & illustration of usage of power-angle curve, description & illustration of usage of power-circle diagram, description of purpose & usage of power transfer limits, description of ATC concept as described in MOD-001-1a & description of purpose & illustration of usage of distribution factors


 

ILA #3

1.     Describe fundamental theory of frequency control, review historical load data for NERC systems, examine actual frequency deviations & describe importance of load-frequency relationship & inertia

             Topics addressed include explanation of load to resource balance, examination of historic load levels in NERC Interconnections, explanation of range of allowable frequency deviations, description & illustration of load frequency relationship, explanation of role of inertia in frequency control process & description of content of BAL-003-1.1 as applies to load damping

 

2.     Describe & illustrate usage & operation of governor control systems

             Topics addressed include description of basic operation of governor control system, description & illustration of concepts of droop, speed regulation & deadband, governor response expectations from different types of generation, analysis of frequency events to determine impact of droop & deadband settings, difference between speed droop & speed regulation, examination of trends in NERC frequency response measure (FRM) & description of content of BAL-003-1.1 as applies to governors

 

3.     Describe & illustrate usage & operation of AGC systems

             Topics addressed include illustration of how interconnection divided into BAs, description of duties of BA, explanation of concepts of scheduled, actual & inadvertent interchange, explanation of frequency bias value, minimum bias values as defined in BAL-003-1.1, description & illustration of usage of constant frequency, constant interchange & tie-line bias methods of AGC & description of NERC AGC requirements as contained in BAL-005-0.2b

 

4.     Describe need for operating reserves & describe & illustrate current & future NERC control performance standards

             Topics addressed include description of types & sources of operating reserves, description & illustration of CPS1 & CPS2 performance standards, description & illustration of DCS, description & illustration of BAAL concept, describe & illustrate primary, secondary & tertiary frequency control & description of content of BAL-001-2 & BAL-002-1 & BAL-002-2

 

5.     Describe purpose & operation of UFLS & illustrate impact of generator trip using time-based 4 stage approach

             Topics addressed include description of purpose, design & operation of UFLS program along with description of content of PRC-006-2, examination of frequency data & frequency response trends from actual NERC disturbances, calculation & illustration of voltage phase angle changes during frequency events & analysis of generation trip in terms of 4-stage, time-based process including (1) electromechanical stage, (2) inertial stage, (3) governor stage & (4) AGC stage


 

ILA #4

1.     Describe & illustrate concept of reactive power

             Topics addressed include explanation of reactive power from energy storage perspective, illustration of how reactive power flows, illustration of usage of shunt capacitors to compensate inductive load, derivation & usage of formula for transmission system reactive power usage & description of content of VAR-001-4.1 & VAR-002-4 as applies to voltage control

 

2.     Describe & illustrate causes & effects of power system high & low voltage

             Topics addressed include explanation of SIL, explanation of why shunt capacitors MVar output varies with voltage, illustration of how point-on-wave closing minimizes capacitor in-rush current, illustration of how unscheduled power flow leads to low voltage, illustration of how transmission line trips lead to low voltage, importance of reactive power reserves, difference between manual & dynamic reactive reserve, cause & methods of preventing Ferranti voltage rise, cause & methods of preventing generator self-excitation, concept of harmonic overvoltages, explanation of load/voltage relationship, explanation of transformer saturation, usage of lightning arresters to minimize impact of lighting strikes, description of GMD concept & its impact on voltage control, description of content of EOP-010-1 & TPL-007-1 as related to GMDs & description of content of VAR-001-4.1 & VAR-002-4 as relates to dynamic reactive reserve

 

3.     Describe & illustrate how voltage control equipment used to control power system voltage

             Topics addressed include usage of shunt & series capacitors for voltage control, usage of shunt (dry-type & oil-filled) & series reactors for voltage control, usage of transformer tap changers to move MVar around system, usage of generators to both absorb & provide MVar, description of illustration of various types of excitation systems, description & illustration of usage of reactive capability curves, illustration of generator V-curves, usage of thyrister controlled equipment such as SVCs, STATCOMs, variable frequency transformer (VFT) & HVDC converters & description of content of VAR-002-4 as applies to usage of generators for voltage control


 

ILA #5

1.     Define key terms used in study of voltage stability & describe 3 types of voltage collapse

             Topics addressed include presenting & illustrating definitions of voltage stability, voltage instability & voltage collapse, describe difference between voltage & angle stability, describing & illustrating 3 types of voltage collapse (long-term, classical & transient), description of content of TPL-001-4 Standard as relates to voltage stability based operating security limits

 

2.     Explain concepts & illustrate usage of P-V & V-Q curves

             Topics addressed include explaining & demonstrating construction of P-V & V-Q curves, interpreting shape & data presented in fictional & actual P-V & V-Q curves, description of content of TPL-001-4 Standard as relates to usage of P-V & V-Q curves to determine operating security limits

 

3.     Use fictional & actual system events to illustrate voltage instability & collapse process

             Step through fictional & actual voltage collapse events using P-V & V-Q curves, describe impact of tap changers & generator MVar response & loss-of-load-diversity on voltage collapse scenarios, describe value of maintaining adequate dynamic reactive reserve, describe how UVLS schemes can help prevent voltage collapse & description of content of PRC-010-2 Standard as relates to UVLS programs


 

ILA #6

1.     Define key terms used in study of angle stability & describe 3 types of angle stability

             Topics addressed include presenting & illustrating definitions of angle stability & angle instability, description of how short term frequency differences can lead to angle instability, use phasor diagram to illustrate angle instability, describe 3 types of angle stability/instability (steady-state, transient & oscillatory) & description of how angle stability limits determined using computer models described in MOD-032-1 & MOD-033-1

 

2.     Describe & illustrate processes of angle stability & angle instability

             Topics addressed include description of how power-angle curve used to analyze angle stability of power system, description of usage of swing equation, description of steady-state stability & steady-state instability using power angle curves, description of transient stability & transient instability using power angle curves, description of oscillatory stability & oscillatory instability using power angle curves & description of content of TPL-001-4 Standard as relates to stability based system operating limits

 

3.     Describe & illustrate usage of equipment to prevent angle instability

             Topics addressed include usage of braking resistors, usage of fast protection, usage of fast valving schemes & usage of OOS blocking & OOS tripping protective relays

 

4.     Describe different modes of power system oscillations & describe theory & usage of PSS

             Topics addressed include defining & illustrating inter-area oscillations, intra-area oscillations, local mode oscillations & intra-plant oscillations, describing & illustrating how PSS used to increase system damping & description of PSS requirements in VAR-501-WECC-2 standard

 

5.     Describe purpose & usage of North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI)

             Topics addressed include concept of phasor measurement unit (PMU), concept & usage of synchrophasors, description & illustration of actual synchrophasor driven remedial action scheme to prevent angle instability, description of how synchrophasors used for disturbance monitoring as required by PRC-002-2