Power System Fundamentals ILAs


ILA #1

Describe and illustrate math concepts used in power system calculations.


1.     Use & application of fractions including:

            Concepts of numerator & denominator

            Add, subtract, multiply & divide

            Concept of lowest common denominator

            Concept & usage of ratios & percentages


2.     Use & application of exponents

            Basic math using exponents

            Greek letter representation of exponents (k, M, G, T, etc.)


3.     Use of square roots

            Explanation of square root principal

            Power system square root applications


4.     Explanation of concept & usage of constant "PI"


5.     Use & application of sine & cosine functions

            Concept of an angle

            Usage & illustration of right triangles

            Definition of sine & cosine

            Use of Pythagorean Theorem

            Solving right triangles for side lengths & angle values


6.     Introduction to per-unit system of measurement

            Concept of per-unit measurements

            Conversion between per-unit & percentage systems

            Usage of per-unit for voltage & power flow value displays



ILA #2

Describe and illustrate usage of DC Theory Concepts.


1.     Explain atomic scale difference between conductor & insulator


2.     Describe concept of voltage & illustrate voltage sources


3.     Illustrate & briefly explain concept of electro-magnetic induction

            Illustrate how hydro & steam prime movers serve as rotation source for electro-magnetic induction


4.     Illustrate development of an AC voltage & its conversion to DC using commutator


5.     Describe concept of current & differentiate between conventional current flow & electron flow


6.     Describe & illustrate a DC electrical circuit

            Explain & illustrate usage of Ohms Law in DC circuit

            Explain & illustrate usage of power & energy formulas in DC circuit

            Explain & illustrate usage of Kirchhoff's First & Second Laws in DC circuit


7.     Explain & illustrate usage of modern day HVDC transmission



ILA #3

Explain & illustrate the usage of AC theory concepts.


1.     Illustrate & explain the development of an AC voltage using electro-magnetic induction


2.     Describe the features of an AC sine wave including peak versus RMS values


3.     Explain & illustrate the concept of inductance & inductive reactance

            Briefly describe how inductive coupling is used in transformers


4.     Explain & illustrate the concept of capacitance & capacitive reactance

            Illustrate the effect of inductance & capacitance on the phase angle between voltage & current


5.     Describe & illustrate the usage of the impedance & power triangles - have students solve multiple impedance & power triangles


6.     Use the "PI" model of a transmission line to explain the presence of inductance, capacitance & resistance in AC transmission lines


7.     Briefly describe reactive power concept using analogies


8.     Explain & illustrate concept of power factor


9.     Describe advantages of a 3-Phase power system



ILA #4

Describe and illustrate the organization & components of the North American power system.


1.     Using a simple diagram of the key components of the power system step through & describe a typical power system arrangement

            First explain generator role, then transformer, then transmission, then sub-transmission, then distribution, etc. all the way through to the end user residential customer


2.     Describe & illustrate how load varies moment to moment, hourly, daily & seasonally

            Describe load forcasting process


3.     Describe & illustrate 4 NERC Interconnections


4.     Explain roles of organizations who administer power system

            Include FERC, NERC, Regional Entities & NAESB


5.     Describe & illustrate the construction & usage of the generation system

            Purpose of rotor, stator, prime mover, governor, & exciter

            Use photographs to describe the different types of generation used in the power system


6.     Describe & illustrate the construction & usage of the transmission system

            Purpose & usage of transformers, switches, circuit breakers, bus-work, shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, SVCs, ground mats, transmission lines, line conductors, insulators, protective relaying, instrument transformers, ANSI device numbers, synchronizing equipment, UVLS & UFLS

            Use photographs to describe the different types of transmission equipment used in the power system



ILA #5

Use NERC's Functional Model as a guide to describe the roles performed by the Functional Entities listed in the Functional Model.


1.     List, describe, & where possible illustrate the job function of each of the 18 entities listed in NERCs Version 5 Functional Model.  The 18 Functional Entities include:

            Standards Developer

            Compliance Enforcement Entity

            Reliability Assurer

            Reliability Coordinator

            Transmission Service Provider

            Planning Coordinator

            Market Operator

            Interchange Coordinator

            Balancing Authority

            Transmission Owner

            Generation Operator

            Transmission Operator

            Transmission Planner

            Resource Planner

            Generator Owner

            Load Serving Entity

            Purchasing Selling Entity

            Distribution Provider



ILA #6

Describe & illustrate how the generation & transmission systems are operated.


1.     Briefly describe & illustrate how generation operations is accomplished

            Describe & illustrate how frequency is the result of the balance between generation & load

            Illustrate & explain the concept of inertia

            Describe how governors operate

            Describe how AGC operates

            Explain concept of operating reserve


2.     Briefly describe & illustrate how transmission operations is accomplished

            Describe how TOPs manage voltage control process

            Describe how TOPs manage switching process

            Describe how RCs & TOPs operate within SOLs

            Describe how RCs & TOPs manage congestion


3.     Describe how the power system is operated in emergency conditions

            Describe causes of power system collapse

            Describe how power systems are restored from collapse

            Step through & explain key points of the 8/14/2013 Eastern Interconnection disturbance

            Step through & explain key points of the 9/8/2011 Western Interconnection disturbance



ILA #7

List & briefly describe the content of the current NERC Reliability Standards.


1.     List & briefly describe the content of the most current version of the NERC Reliability Standards that have been approved by the NERC BOT

            Briefly describe & illustrate when possible, the content of the following NERC Reliability Standards: BAL-001-2, BAL-002-1A, BAL-003-1, BAL-004-0, BAL-005-0.2B, BAL-006-2, CIP-002-5.1, CIP-003-6, CIP-004-6, CIP-005-5, CIP-006-6, CIP-007-6, CIP-008-5, CIP-009-6, CIP-010-2, CIP-011-2, CIP-014-1, COM-001-2, COM-002-4, EOP-004-2, EOP-005-2, EOP-008-1, EOP-010-1, EOP-011-1, FAC-001-2, FAC-002-2, FAC-003-3, FAC-008-3, FAC-010-2.1, FAC-011-2, FAC-013-2, FAC-014-2, INT-004-3, INT-006-4, INT-009-2, INT-010-2, INT-011-1, IRO-001-4, IRO-002-4, IRO-006-5, IRO-008-2, IRO-010-2, IRO-014-3, IRO-017-1, MOD-001-2, MOD-016-1.1, MOD-017-0.1, MOD-018-0, MOD-019-0.1, MOD-020-0, MOD-021-1, MOD-025-2, MOD-026-1, MOD-027-1, MOD-031-1, MOD-032-1, MOD-033-1, NUC-001-3, PER-001-0.2, PER,003-1, PER-004-2, PER-005-2, PRC-001-2, PRC-002-3, PRC-004-4, PRC-005-4, PRC-006-2, PRC-010-1, PRC-012-0, PRC-013-0, PRC-014-0, PRC-015-0, PRC-016-0.1, PRC-017-0, PRC-019-1, PRC-023-3, PRC-024-1, PRC-025-1, TOP-001-2, TOP-002-4, TOP-003-3, TOP-004-2, TOP-006-3, TOP-007-0, TOP-008-1, TPL-001-4, VAR-1-4 & VAR-002-4