Power System Fundamentals ILAs


ILA #1


Describe & illustrate math concepts used in power system calculations.

(Short Math Review!)


1.     Use & application of fractions including:

a.     Concepts of numerator & denominator

b.     Add, subtract, multiply & divide

c.      Concept of lowest common denominator

d.     Concept & usage of ratios & percentages

2.     Use & application of exponents

a.     Basic math using exponents

b.     Greek letter representation of exponents (k, M, G, T, etc.)

3.     Use of square roots

a.     Explanation of square root principal

b.     Power system square root applications

4.     Explanation of concept & usage of constant “PI”

5.     Use & application of sine & cosine functions

a.     Concept of an angle

b.     Usage & illustration of right triangles

c.      Definition of sine & cosine

d.     Use of Pythagorean Theorem

e.     Solving right triangles for side lengths & angle values

f.      Concept of vector

6.     Introduction to per-unit system of measurement

a.     Concept of per-unit measurements

b.     Conversion between per-unit & percentage systems

c.      Usage of per-unit for voltage & power flow value displays


ILA #2


Describe & illustrate usage of DC Theory Concepts.

(DC Theory Review)


1.     Explain atomic scale difference between conductor & insulator

2.     Describe concept of voltage & illustrate voltage sources

3.     Illustrate & briefly explain concept of electro-magnetic induction

a.     Illustrate how hydro & steam prime movers serve as rotation source for electro-magnetic induction

4.     Illustrate development of AC voltage & its conversion to DC using commutator

5.     Describe concept of current & differentiate between conventional current flow & electron flow

6.     Describe & illustrate DC electrical circuit

a.     Explain & illustrate usage of Ohms Law in DC circuit

b.     Explain & illustrate usage of power & energy formulas in DC circuits

c.      Explain & illustrate usage of Kirchhoff’s First & Second Laws in DC circuits

7.     Explain & illustrate usage of HVDC transmission


ILA #3


Explain & illustrate usage of AC theory concepts.

(AC Theory Review)


1.     Illustrate & explain development of AC voltage using electro-magnetic induction

2.     Describe features of AC sine wave including peak versus RMS values

3.     Explain & illustrate concept of inductance & inductive reactance

a.     Briefly describe how inductive coupling used in transformers

4.     Explain & illustrate concept of capacitance & capacitive reactance

a.     Illustrate effect of inductance & capacitance on phase angle between voltage & current

5.     Describe & illusate usage of impedance & power triangles

6.     Use “PI” model of transmission line to explain presence of inductance, capacitance & resistance in AC transmission lines

7.     Briefly describe reactive power using analogies

8.     Explain & illustrate concept of power factor

9.     Describe advantages of 3-Phase power system


ILA #4


Describe & illustrate organization & components of North American power system

(Introduction To Power Systems)


1.     Using simple diagram of key components of power system step through & describe typical power system arrangement

a.     First explain generator role, then transformer, then transmission, then sub-transmission, then distribution, etc. all the way through to end-user residential customer.

2.     Describe & illustrate how load varies moment to moment, hourly, daily & seasonally

a.     Describe load forcasting process

3.     Describe & illustrate 4 NERC Interconnections

4.     Explain roles of organizations who administer power system

a.     Include FERC, NERC, Regional Entities & NAESB

5.     Describe & illustrate construction & usage of generator system

a.     Purpose of rotor, stator, prime mover, governor, & exciter

b.     Use photographs to describe different types of generation used in power system

c.      Explain concept of reliability must run (RMR) generation

6.     Describe & illustrate construction & usage of transmission system

a.     Purpose & usage of transformers, switches, circuit breakers, bus-work, shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, SVCs, ground mats, transmission lines, line conductors, insulators, protective relaying, instrument transformers, IEEE device numbers, synchronizing equipment, UVLS & UFLS

b.     Use photographs to describe different types of transmission equipment used in power system


ILA #5


Use NERC’s Functional Model as guide to describe roles performed by Functional Entities listed in Functional Model

(Who Does What?)


1.     List, describe & where possible illustrate job function of each of 18 entities listed in NERC’s Version 5 Functional Model.  18 Functional Entities include:

a.     Standards Developer

b.     Compliance Enforcement Entity

c.      Reliability Assurer

d.     Reliability Coordinator

e.     Transmission Service Provider

f.      Planning Coordinator

g.     Market Operator

h.     Interchange Coordinator

i.       Balancing Authority

j.       Transmission Owner

k.     Generation Operator

l.       Transmission Operator

m.   Transmission Planner

n.     Resource Planner

o.     Generator Owner

p.     Load Serving Entity

q.     Purchasing Selling Entity

r.      Distribution Provider


ILA #6

Describe & illustrate how generation & transmission systems operated

(Power System Operations)


1.     Briefly describe & illustrate how generation operations is accomplished

a.     Describe & illustrate how frequency is result of balance between generation & load

b.     Illustrate & explain value of inertia

c.      Describe how governors operate

d.     Describe how AGC operates

e.     Explain concert of operating reserve

2.     Briefly describe & illustrate how transmission operations accomplished

a.     Describe how TOPs manage voltage control process

b.     Describe how TOPs manage switching process

c.      Describe how RCs & TOPs operate within SOLs

d.     Describe how RCs & TOPs manage congestion

3.     Describe how power system is operated in emergency conditions

a.     Describe causes of power system collapse

b.     Describe how power systems restored from collapse

c.      Step through & explain key points of 8/14/2013 Eastern Interconnection disturbance

d.     Step through & explain key point of 9/8/2011 Western Interconnection disturbance


ILA #7


List & briefly describe content of current NERC Reliability Standards

(NERC Reliability Standards)


1.     List & briefly describe content of current versions of NERC Reliability Standards

1.     Briefly describe following NERC Reliability Standards: BAL-001-2, BAL-002-1, BAL-003-1.1, BAL-004-0, BAL-005-0.2B, BAL-006-2, CIP-002-5.1, CIP-003-6, CIP-004-6, CIP-005-5, CIP-006-6, CIP-007-6, CIP-008-5, CIP-009-6, CIP-010-2, CIP-011-2, CIP-014-2, COM-001-2.1, COM-002-4, EOP-004-3, EOP-005-2, EOP-006-2, EOP-008-1, EOP-010-1, EOP-011-1, FAC-001-3, FAC-002-2, FAC-003-4, FAC-008-3, FAC-010-3, FAC-011-3, FAC-013-2, FAC-014-2, INT-004-3.1, INT-006-4, INT-009-2.1, INT-010-2.1, IRO-001-4, IRO-002-4, IRO-006-5, IRO-008-2, IRO-009-2, IRO-010-2, IRO-014-3, IRO-017-1, MOD-001-2, MOD-025-2, MOD-026-1, MOD-027-1, MOD-028-2, MOD-029-2A, MOD-030-3, MOD-031-2, MOD-032-1, MOD-033-1, NUC-001-3, PER-001-0.2, PER-003-1, PER-005-2 (No Course Time Used For Coverage Of PER-005-2), PER-006-1, PRC-001-1.1(ii), PRC-002-2, PRC-004-5(i), PRC-005-6, PRC-006-2, PRC-010-2, PRC-015-1, PRC-016-1, PRC-017-1, PRC-019-2, PRC-023-4, PRC-024-2, PRC-025-1, PRC-026-1, TOP-001-3, TOP-002-4, TOP-003-3, TPL-001-4, TPL-007-1, VAR-1-4.1 & VAR-002-4