**Power System Fundamentals ILAs (33 Total CEH)**

**ILA #1 (2 Operating
Topics)**

**Describe &
illustrate math concepts used in power system calculations.**

**(Short Math Review!)**

1. Use & application of fractions including:

a. Concepts of numerator & denominator

b. Add, subtract, multiply & divide

c. Concept of lowest common denominator

d. Concept & usage of ratios & percentages

2.
Use &
application of exponents

a.
Basic math using
exponents

b.
Greek letter
representation of exponents (k, M, G, T, etc.)

3.
Use of square
roots

a.
Explanation of
square root principal

b.
Power system
square root applications

4.
Explanation of
concept & usage of constant “PI”

5.
Use &
application of sine & cosine functions

a.
Concept of an
angle

b.
Usage &
illustration of right triangles

c.
Definition of
sine & cosine

d.
Use of Pythagorean
Theorem

e.
Solving right
triangles for side lengths & angle values

f.
Concept of vector

6.
Introduction to
per-unit system of measurement

a.
Concept of
per-unit measurements

b.
Conversion
between per-unit & percentage systems

c.
Usage of per-unit
for voltage & power flow value displays

**Test**

At conclusion of this learning activity a written, multiple choice, true/false, or short answer type exam is administered. A complete review of all questions on exam to explain basics for correct responses concludes activity. (If partial credit awarded for this ILA student will complete an exam for portion of ILA completed. This exam is kept for record.) At conclusion of entire course (7 ILAs) an additional final exam is administered and results are kept for record.

**ILA #2 (3.5 Operating
Topics)**

**Describe &
illustrate usage of DC Theory Concepts.**

**(DC Theory Review)**

1.
Describe atomic
scale difference between conductor & insulator

2.
Describe concept
of voltage & illustrate voltage sources

3.
Describe &
illustrate concept of electro-magnetic induction

a.
Illustrate how
hydro & steam prime movers serve as rotation source for electro-magnetic
induction

4.
Illustrate
development of AC voltage & its conversion to DC using commutator

5.
Describe concept
of current & differentiate between conventional current flow & electron
flow

6.
Describe &
illustrate DC electrical circuit

a.
Describe &
illustrate usage of Ohms Law in DC circuit

b.
Describe &
illustrate usage of power & energy formulas in DC circuits

c.
Describe &
illustrate usage of Kirchhoff’s First & Second Laws in DC circuits

7.
Describe &
illustrate usage of HVDC transmission

**Test**

At conclusion of this learning activity a written, multiple choice, true/false, or short answer type exam is administered. A complete review of all questions on exam to explain basics for correct responses concludes activity. (If partial credit awarded for this ILA student will complete an exam for portion of ILA completed. This exam is kept for record.) At conclusion of entire course (7 ILAs) an additional final exam is administered and results are kept for record.

**ILA #3 (4 Operating
Topics)**

**Explain & illustrate usage of AC theory concepts.**

**(AC Theory Review)**

1.
Illustrate &
describe development of AC voltage using electro-magnetic induction

2.
Describe features
of AC sine wave including peak versus RMS values

3.
Describe &
illustrate concept of inductance & inductive reactance

a.
Briefly describe
how inductive coupling used in transformers

4.
Describe &
illustrate concept of capacitance & capacitive reactance

a.
Illustrate effect
of inductance & capacitance on phase angle between voltage & current

5.
Describe &
illusate usage of impedance & power triangles

6.
Use “PI” model of
transmission line to explain presence of inductance, capacitance & resistance
in AC transmission lines

7.
Briefly describe
reactive power using analogies

8.
Describe &
illustrate concept of power factor

9.
Describe
advantages of 3-phase power system

**Test**

At conclusion of this learning activity a written, multiple choice, true/false, or short answer type exam is administered. A complete review of all questions on exam to explain basics for correct responses concludes activity. (If partial credit awarded for this ILA student will complete an exam for portion of ILA completed. This exam is kept for record.) At conclusion of entire course (7 ILAs) an additional final exam is administered, and results are kept for record.

**ILA #4 (7.5 Operating
Topics)**

**Describe & illustrate organizational structure
& components of North American power system**

**(Introduction To Power Systems)**

1.
Using simple
diagram of key components of power system step through & describe typical
power system arrangement

a.
First explain
generator role, then transformer, then transmission, then sub-transmission,
then distribution, etc. all the way through to end-user residential customer.

2.
Describe &
illustrate how load varies moment to moment, hourly, daily & seasonally

a.
Describe load
forcasting process

3.
Describe &
illustrate 4 NERC Interconnections

4.
Describe roles of
organizations who administer power system

a.
Include FERC,
NERC, Regional Entities & NAESB

5.
Describe &
illustrate construction & usage of generator system

a.
Purpose of rotor,
stator, prime mover, governor, & exciter

b.
Use photographs
to describe different types of generation used in power system

c.
Explain concept
of reliability must run (RMR) generation

6.
Describe &
illustrate construction & usage of transmission system

a.
Purpose & usage
of transformers, switches, circuit breakers, bus-work, shunt capacitors, shunt
reactors, SVCs, ground mats, transmission lines, line conductors, insulators,
protective relaying, instrument transformers, IEEE device numbers,
synchronizing equipment, UVLS & UFLS

b.
Use photographs
to describe different types of transmission equipment used in power system

**Test**

At conclusion of this learning activity a written, multiple choice, true/false, or short answer type exam is administered. A complete review of all questions on exam to explain basics for correct responses concludes activity. (If partial credit awarded for this ILA student will complete an exam for portion of ILA completed. This exam is kept for record.) At conclusion of entire course (7 ILAs) an additional final exam is administered and results are kept for record.

**ILA #5 (4 Operating
Topics)**

**Use NERC’s Functional Model as guide to describe roles
performed by Functional Entities listed in Functional Model**

**(Who Does What?)**

1.
List, describe &
where possible illustrate job function of each of 18 entities listed in NERC’s
Version 5 Functional Model. 18
Functional Entities include:

a.
Standards
Developer

b.
Compliance
Enforcement Entity

c.
Reliability
Assurer

d.
Reliability
Coordinator

e.
Transmission
Service Provider

f.
Planning Coordinator

g.
Market Operator

h.
Interchange
Coordinator

i.
Balancing
Authority

j.
Transmission
Owner

k.
Generation
Operator

l.
Transmission
Operator

m.
Transmission
Planner

n.
Resource Planner

o.
Generator Owner

p.
Load Serving
Entity

q.
Purchasing
Selling Entity

r.
Distribution
Provider

**Test**

**ILA #6 (7 Operating
Topics)**

**Describe & illustrate how generation &
transmission systems operated**

**(Power System Operations)**

1.
Briefly describe
& illustrate how generation operations is accomplished

a.
Describe &
illustrate how frequency is result of balance between generation & load

b.
Illustrate &
explain value of inertia

c.
Describe how
governors operate

d.
Describe how AGC
operates

e.
Explain concert
of operating reserve

2.
Briefly describe
& illustrate how transmission operations accomplished

a.
Describe how TOPs
manage voltage control process

b.
Describe how TOPs
manage switching process

c.
Describe how RCs
& TOPs operate within SOLs

d.
Describe how RCs
& TOPs manage congestion

3.
Describe how
power system is operated in emergency conditions

a.
Describe causes
of power system collapse

b.
Describe how
power systems restored from collapse

c.
Step through
& explain key points of 8/14/2013 Eastern Interconnection disturbance

d.
Step through
& explain key point of 9/8/2011 Western Interconnection disturbance

**Test**

**ILA #7 (5 Operating
Topics)**

**List & briefly describe content of current NERC
Reliability Standards**

**(NERC Reliability Standards)**

1.
List &
briefly describe content of current versions of NERC Reliability Standards

a.
Briefly describe
following NERC Reliability Standards: BAL-001-2, BAL-002-2, BAL-003-1.1,
BAL-004-0, BAL-005-0.2b, BAL-006-2, CIP-002-5.1, CIP-003-6, CIP-004-6,
CIP-005-5, CIP-006-6, CIP-007-6, CIP-008-5, CIP-009-6, CIP-010-2, CIP-011-2,
CIP-014-2, COM-001-3, COM-002-4, EOP-004-3, EOP-005-2, EOP-006-2, EOP-008-1,
EOP-010-1, EOP-011-1, FAC-001-2, FAC-002-2, FAC-003-4, FAC-008-3, FAC-010-3,
FAC-011-3, FAC-013-2, FAC-014-2, INT-004-3.1, INT-006-4, INT-009-2.1, INT-010-2.1,
IRO-001-4, IRO-002-5, IRO-006-5, IRO-008-2, IRO-009-2, IRO-010-2, IRO-014-3,
IRO-017-1, IRO-018-1(i), MOD-001-1a, MOD-004-1, MOD-008-1, MOD-028-2,
MOD-029-2a, MOD-030-3, MOD-020-0, MOD-025-2, MOD-026-1, MOD-027-1, MOD-031-2,
MOD-032-1, MOD-033-1, NUC-001-3, PER-003-1, PER-004-2, PER-005-2 (No Course
Time Used For Coverage Of PER-005-2), PRC-001-1.1(ii), PRC-002-2, PRC-004-5(i),
PRC-005-6, PRC-006-3, PRC-010-2, PRC-015-1, PRC-016-1, PRC-017-1, PRC-019-2,
PRC-023-4, PRC-024-2, PRC-025-1, PRC-026-1, TOP-001-3, TOP-002-4, TOP-003-3, TOP-010-1(i),
TPL-001-4, TPL-007-1, VAR-1-4.2 & VAR-002-4.1

**Test**